Human capital

  • 详情 The Normative Impact of Environmental Regulation on the Ecological Efficiency of Digital Enterprises: A Perspective on Human Capital and R&D
    Based on the perspective of human capital and technology R & D regulation, this paper adopts the unexpected output super efficiency SBM model to calculate the ecological efficiency of digital enterprises in 30 provinces in China from 2010 to 2019, analyzes its spatial correlation, and empirically explores the driving factors of the ecological efficiency of Chinese digital enterprises under the role of environmental regulation. The results show that during the research period, the overall level of ecological efficiency of digital enterprises in China can be divided into three stages: gentle stage (2010-2014), trough stage (2014-2017) and fluctuation stage (2017-2019), and the eastern region > the central region > the western region; The ecological efficiency of China's digital enterprises as a whole shows a ladder like evolution law of decreasing from southeast to northwest, with significant spatial agglomeration and "block" characteristics; Environmental regulation has a lag effect on the ecological efficiency of digital enterprises, and the lag period inhibits the improvement of the ecological efficiency of digital enterprises; The level of human capital and the level of scientific and technological research and development have significant threshold characteristics. When the level of human capital is used as a threshold variable, the impact of environmental regulation on the ecological efficiency of digital enterprises is "U" shaped. When the level of scientific and technological research and development exceeds a certain threshold, environmental regulation has a negative impact on the ecological efficiency of digital enterprises.
  • 详情 Does Digitalization Widen Labor Income Inequality?
    Many studies suggest a positive and monotonic relationship between technological progress and wage income inequality since 1980s for industrialized economies. We examine this topic in the context of the Chinese economy where new technologies like automation, AI and digitalization have witnessed worldís most rapid growth in the last decade. Surprsingly, we Önd an inverted U-Shaped relationship - a "Digital Kuznets Curve", using a panel dataset constructed in line with the newly published "2021 Categorization of Core Industries of Digital Economy". We then set out a task-based growth model with heterogenous human capital and occupational choice, and show that this hump-shaped relationship can emerge either by introducing an erosion e§ect of digitalization on worker ability that increasingly counterveils the skill-biasing e§ect, or by directly adding a dynamic learning cost that captures the externality of digitalization. Our study contributes to the understanding of the nature of digitalization in re-shaping labor market structure.
  • 详情 The Measurement of Human Resource Equity is the Logical Foundation of Enterprise Equity Incentive
    In the era of digital economy, the development and application of digital intelligence technology are changing rapidly, and human society has entered a new era where digital intelligence technology is rapidly advancing and playing an important role. Workers who master digital intelligence technology play a decisive role in the sustained and healthy development of enterprises, and the human capital possessed by workers has become the driving force for high-quality development of enterprises. The recognition and measurement of the value of human capital possessed by workers is the foundation and prerequisite for motivating workers, and the recognition and measurement of human capital value has become a core issue that urgently needs to be studied in human resource equity accounting. The article briefly introduces the development of human resource accounting theory, expounds that establishing human capital property rights is an important condition for the sustainable development of enterprises in the digital economy era, stimulates the potential of human capital, and is conducive to accelerating economic transformation and upgrading. The dynamic equity distribution mechanism is an important way to stimulate the vitality of human capital.
  • 详情 Modern Partnership System is a Booster for High-quality Development of Entrepreneurial Enterprises in the Era of Digital Intelligence
    In the era of digital economy, although the production (labor) tools of enterprises are digitalized, intelligent, and networked, and new characteristics and scenarios have emerged in enterprise operation and labor methods, the human capital possessed by workers has become the driving force for the sustainable development of entrepreneurial enterprises. Workers who master digital technology play a decisive role in the sustainable and healthy development of entrepreneurial enterprises. The article points out that in the era of digital economy, human capital is a key factor for economic growth and development. In the fields of mixed ownership and private economy, the employment system will gradually "retire", and modern partnership systems will prevail; The modern partnership system can motivate partners to collaborate and innovate, which is an upgrade of the manager system; The article briefly introduces the advantages and disadvantages of the dual ownership structure and the dynamic equity distribution mechanism of start-up companies; And the achievements made by Xiaomi Group, Huawei Company, and Midea Group in implementing a business partnership system.
  • 详情 Human Capital is the Driving Force for the Sustainable Development of Entrepreneurial Enterprises in the Digital Economy Era
    The rapid development of the digital economy is driving profound changes in production methods, lifestyles, and corporate governance. Human society has entered a new era where digital technology is rapidly advancing and playing an important role. In the era of digital economy, although the production (labor) tools of enterprises are digitized, intelligent, and networked, and new characteristics and scenarios have emerged in the operation and labor methods of enterprises, the human capital possessed by workers has become the driving force for the sustainable development of entrepreneurial enterprises. Workers who master digital technology play a decisive role in the sustainable and healthy development of entrepreneurial enterprises. The article briefly introduces the establishment and development of human capital theory, pointing out that in the digital economy era, human capital has greater potential for appreciation, and its marginal returns show a trend of increasing; Human capital is a key factor in economic growth and development. The surplus of producers in an enterprise refers to the income that producers receive in excess of their production costs. The owners of human resources should receive a portion of the investment return that should belong to human capital from the enterprise in the form of "producer equity", "labor stock", or equity incentives in proportion. Equity incentives have become an important corporate governance mechanism in the capital market. The article also elaborates on the modern partnership system, which can motivate partners to collaborate and innovate, and is an upgrade of the manager system; Briefly introduced the achievements made by Xiaomi Group and Huawei in implementing the business partner system.
  • 详情 Urban Vibrancy, Human Capital, and Firm Valuation in China
    This paper provides a first systematic analysis of urban vibrancy in human capital supply in explaining persistent geographic firm valuation dispersion in China. We find persistent, significant city-to-city differences in Tobin’s q, especially among large, mature, or high labor-intensive firms. To explain such geographic differences in firm valuations, we identify several factors of the endowed city competitive advantages in creating human capital that play important roles in explaining the persistent geographic firm valuation premia. Our evidence suggests that city geographic location and initial cumulated human capital supply have created long-lasting, and growing, shareholder wealth by attracting and retaining talents and human resources in local firms.
  • 详情 Deleveraging, Tax and Corporate Policies
    We investigate how marginal corporate tax rate affects corporate policy changes in response to a regulatory credit crunch. With a surge in debt due to a fiscal stimulus after 2008, the Chinese government rolled out the “deleveraging” program in 2015 which, through tightening monetary policies, restricting credit flows, and regulating shadow banks, significantly increased firms’ cost of debt and the incentive to deleverage. With a difference-in-differences design, we find that high-tax-rate firms reduce leverage to a less extent than low-tax-rate firms after the initiation of the deleveraging program. This effect is stronger in non-state-owned firms and firms with less non-debt tax shields. More importantly, through retaining more debt, high-tax-rate firms reduce dividend and switch to equity financing to a less extent, and also cut less investments in fixed assets, R&D and human capital. We conclude that tax constitutes an important factor in shaping the micro-economic consequences of a credit crunch.
  • 详情 “Golden Ages”: A Tale of the Labor Markets in China and the United States
    We study the labor markets in China and the United States, the two largest economies in the world, by examining the evolution of their cross-sectional age-earnings profiles during the past thirty years. We find that, first, the peak age in the cross-sectional age earnings profiles, which we refer to as the “golden age,” stayed almost constant at around 45-50 in the U.S., but decreased sharply from 55 to around 35 in China; second, the age-specific earnings grew drastically in China, but stayed almost stagnant in the U.S.; third, the cross-sectional and life-cycle age-earnings profiles were remarkably similar in the U.S., but differed substantially in China. We propose and empirically implement a decomposition framework to infer from the repeated cross-sectional earnings data the experience effect (i.e., human capital accumulation over the life cycle), the cohort effect (i.e., inter-cohort human capital growth), and the time effect (i.e., changes in the human capital rental prices over time), under an identifying assumption that the growth of the experience effect stops at the end of one’s working career. The decomposition suggests that China has experienced a much larger inter-cohort productivity growth and higher increase in the rental price to human capital, but lower returns to experience, compared to the U.S. We also use the inferred components to revisit several important and classical applications in macroeconomics and labor economics, including growth accounting and the estimation of TFP growth, and the college wage premium and skill-biased technical change.
  • 详情 Population Aging, Credit Market Frictions, and Chinese Economic Growth
    We build a unified framework to quantitatively examine population aging and credit market frictions in contributing to Chinese economic growth between 1977 and 2014. We find that demographic changes together with endogenous human capital accumulation account for a large part of the rise in per capita output growth, especially after 2007, as well as some of the rise in savings. Credit policy changes initially alleviate the capital misallocation between private and public firms and lead to significant increases in both savings and output growth. Later, they distort capital allocation. While contributing to further increase in savings, the distortion slows down economic growth. Among factors that we consider, increased life expectancy and financial development in the form of reduced intermediation cost are the most important in driving the dynamics of savings and growth.
  • 详情 Social Security and Female Labor Supply in China
    This paper studies how a potential policy change that raises women’s social security eligibility age from 50 to 60 would affect women’s employment, human capital, and earnings in China. I develop a dynamic model of female labor supply, featuring voluntary retirement; occupational choice; human capital accumulation contingent on occupation, age, and employment status; and child care using time inputs from parents, grandparents, and formal child care from the market. I estimate the model parameters by matching moments on employment, wages, and the time allocation of child care from micro data in China. The policy counterfactual raising women’s social security eligibility age yields two main findings. First, the policy change leads to only a moderate increase in aggregate labor supply because it affects the employment of old and young women in opposite directions. The reduction in social security insurance encourages women above the age of 50 to supply more labor. Yet low-skilled young women with children reduce their labor supply in response to the children’s grandmothers working more and providing less child care. Second, since human capital accumulation is faster on the earlier career path rather than later, the reduction in early career employment leads to persistent losses in human capital and earnings for low-skilled women.