Diversity

  • 详情 Green Governance: Exploring the Impact of Foreign Experience on Corporate Environmental Disclosure in China
    This study investigates the relationship between directors’ foreign experience and corporate environmental disclosure in Chinese listed firms from 2009 to 2017. The research shows that directors with foreign experience have a positive and significant impact on corporate environmental disclosure. This effect is more pronounced in nonstate-owned enterprises, where directors have greater influence over managerial decisions. Additionally, the study suggests that in industries with high energy consumption, high pollution, or overcapacity, the positive effect can be further enhanced by having at least three directors with foreign experience or foreign experience members in the audit committee. The impact of experiential diversity on environmental disclosure is greater than that of board gender and independence diversity. The findings suggest that policymakers and firms prioritize the recruitment of directors with diverse experiences to improve their environmental disclosure practices.
  • 详情 Nonlocal CEOS and Corporate Financial Fraud: Evidence from Chinese Listed Firms
    This study examines whether firms’ financial fraudulent behavior varies when local firms are led by nonlocal CEOs. Building on the social identity theory, we argue that nonlocal CEOs, due to their different location-based social identities, are perceived as outgroup leaders and face intergroup bias from stakeholders within local firms. Therefore, nonlocal CEOs are more likely to conform to laws and regulations and reduce corporate financial fraud to enhance their legitimacy in leading local firms. Using panel data on Chinese listed firms from 2007 to 2020, we find a significantly negative correlation between nonlocal CEOs and the likelihood of corporate financial fraud. Furthermore, our moderating analysis indicate that the negative effect of nonlocal CEOs on corporate financial fraud is stronger (a) for CEOs who have neverwon awards, (b) in firms with poor financial performance and (c) in regions with tight cultures. Additional mechanism tests indicate that nonlocal CEOs’ outgroup identity is more prominent in regions with low regional dialect diversity and local private-owned enterprises. Overall, these findings suggest that choosing a nonlocal CEO warrants attention from the firm’s top management teams and stakeholders.
  • 详情 Attention Constraints and Financial Inclusion
    We show that attention constraints of decision makers create barriers to financial inclusion. Using administrative data on retail loan screening processes, we find that attention-constrained loan officers exert less effort reviewing applicants from lower social or economic status (SES) backgrounds and reject them more frequently. More importantly, when externally imposed increases in workload tighten attention constraints, loan officers are even more prone to quickly rejecting low SES applicants but quickly accepting very high SES applicants without careful review, further widening the approval rate gap between high and low SES applicants — a unique prediction of the attention-based mechanism. Our findings suggest that decision makers’ attention constraints could amplify taste-based and statistical discrimination, which further exacerbates financial inclusion gaps, and that financial technologies that reduce information-processing costs may promote more balanced financial access.
  • 详情 How Does Farming Culture Shape Households’ Risk-taking Behavior?
    Does the ancient farming culture shape the risk-taking behavior of households today? Using a dataset covering over 130,000 households from a Chinese national survey, our study examines the relationship between the culture of rice cultivation and the financial behavior of modern households. We find that households in regions with a higher rate of historical rice cultivation are more likely to invest in the financial market and buy lottery, but less likely to purchase insurance. We also find that the rice area has more households with risk preferences consistent with prospect theory expectations. To account for omitted variable bias, we use average regional rainfall and downstream distance to ancient irrigation systems as instrumental variables for rice cultivation, and our results remain robust. We find that the rice effect cannot be explained by regional economic development, traditional Confucian values, or ethnic diversity. To explore potential mechanisms, we find that households in rice regions are more likely to borrow money from friends and relatives and have interest waived, and historical commercial development has also been influenced by the rice culture.
  • 详情 Attention Constraints and Financial Inclusion
    We show that attention constraints on decision-makers create barriers to financial inclusion. Using administrative data on retail loan-screening processes, we find that attention-constrained loan officers exert less effort reviewing applicants from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds and reject them more frequently. More importantly, when externally imposed increases in loan officers’ workloads tighten attention constraints, loan officers are even more prone to quickly rejecting low-SES applicants but quickly accepting very high-SES applicants without careful review. Such selective attention allocation further widens the approval rate gap between high- and low-SES applicants — a unique prediction of the attention-based mechanism.
  • 详情 Attention Constraints and Financial Inclusion
    We show that attention constraints of decision makers function as barriers to financial inclusion. Using administrative data on retail loan screening processes, we find that loan officers exert less effort reviewing applicants from unattractive social or economic backgrounds and reject them more frequently than justified by credit quality. More importantly, when quasi-random workload variations tighten officer attention constraints, unattractive applicants receive even worse treatment—review-time halves and approval rates drop by approximately 40%—while attractive applicants are not affected. Our findings suggest that financial technologies that reduce information-processing costs may promote more balanced financial access.
  • 详情 Board Gender Diversity and Dividend Policy in Chinese Listed Firms
    This study investigates the relationship between gender diversity on the board and dividend payouts in China using a large sample over the period 2003–2017. Our results provide robust and strong evidence showing that gender diversity on the board is positively associated with cash payments of dividends. The empirical outcomes confirm that gender diversity on the board facilitates corporate governance and subsequently promotes dividend payouts. We demonstrate that gender diversity on the board has the greatest effect when the board has critical mass participation (three or more female directors) compared with only their token participation. However, independent female directors increase dividend payouts, while female executive directors do not have a significant impact. Furthermore, we extend the literature on the relationship between dividend payments and government ownership by providing evidence that gender diversity has a higher impact on dividend payouts for state-owned enterprises than non-state-owned enterprises. After controlling the endogeneity problems, our findings are reliable and robust.
  • 详情 The Impact of Gender Diversity on Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response: the Moderating role of Institutional Environment
    This study conducts a firm-level analysis of the impact that the gender diversity of boards of directors has on corporate philanthropic responses to disasters. We predict a negative relationship between diversity and philanthropic contribution; as the relationship is stronger in listed firms with a better-developed institutional environment. Data were collected on the philanthropic responses of listed Chinese firms to the 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. These data support the hypothesized negative relationship and show that it is stronger in higher level vs. lower level marketization environments; the relationship is weaker in listed firms with average gender diversity that have political connections. We also find evidence that agency cost theory explains corporate philanthropic disaster response much better than strategic philanthropic theory since women on boards of directors do not facilitate corporate donation process but rather evaluate the benefits of corporate responses to disasters. These benefits depend on the level of marketization and separation from the government, especially for listed firms with average gender diversity in China. These constructive results provide the first examination of the moderating role of institutional environment on the relationship between gender diversity and corporate philanthropic behaviors. We discuss the implications of this work for further research on diversity considering the interaction with the corporate context.